1. Oleandrin, the principal cardiac glycoside component of PBI-524, can quantitatively account for regulation of BDNF at both the protein and transcriptional levels. 2. Oleandrin are known to inhibit the Na, K-ATPase pump, resulting in a consequent increase in calcium influx in heart muscle. 3. Oleandrin has stronger anti-proliferative activity in undifferentiated CaCO-2 cells (IC50, 8.25 nM) , causes an autophagic cell death and altered ERK phosphorylation in undifferentiated.